Additional Resources and Books for Afro-Latino Connections and MLK

If anyone would like to discover more on what it looks like to do activism from Afro-Latino perspectives or a Christian perspective as MLK saw it, what follows are resources that were utilized throughout the duration of this project.

Boricuas: Influential Puerto Rican Writings – An Anthology (by Robert Santiago)

Mañana: Christian Theology from a Hispanic Perspective (by Justo L. González)


 As an aside, “Manana: Christian Theology from a Hispanic Perspective” by Dr. Justo González, considered the most prominent Hispanic theologian of the 20th century (and someone who translated for MLK when MLK came to Puerto Rico in 1962) – grew up in Cuba and lived alongside Catholics while later becoming Methodist but also works with Catholics. The work is significant since it notes the ways that Hispanics have a unique experience with Christianity in their history and social development. This history has As noted in his book with regards to why Latino experiences with religion are so unique “, We are descendants of two great mystical traditions: the pre-Reformation evangelically renewed Iberian and the Native American. Both were quite different from Reformation and Counter Reformation European Christianity”…(more at Justo González | Theological Graffiti – Digital Etchings )

From Bomba to Hip Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity (by Juan Flores)

Border Matters by Jose David Saldivar

Symbols, the News Magazines, and Martin Luther King By Richard Lentz

Documentaries and other investigative sites to look into on the issue:

Regarding some of the issues that interviewed participants for my project discussed on the complexities of immigration, something to keep in mind is that many in the nation are voicing why they have felt very much dismissed and are asking to be heard. There are many aspects about family that are forgotten when it comes to history with immigration and who’s illegal. Many called “illegal” actually were U.S Citizens once before they were illegally deported. In the 1930s, to help with the Depression, thousands of Mexican American citizens were deported without warrant – never to see their families ever again.

-“Deportation of Mexican Americans During the 1930s” ( )
-“Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s” ( )
-“A Forgotten Injustice” ( )
-“Forgotten Voices: The Story of the Bracero Program” ( )
-“Albino Pineda Tells His Family Story of Repatriation In The 1930s” ( )
Plenty of people have been unable to receive documentation because the process takes too long due to red tape or missing information that gets lost in the legal process. Places like the ISSAC Project ( ) OPEN Borders have shared more on that when it comes to Guest Worker programs (  ).

This has become even more complicated due to issues of culture which get left out because people have pitted cultures against one another that have often had solidarity in experiences. In example, for all Afro-Latinos who grew up with a diverse heritage having to identify with both African Americans and Hispanics, many have noted that there’s a reason you don’t hear about #LatinoLivesMatter as much as #BlackLivesMatter when both communities are impacted by shared issues ( ).  Being Black isn’t the opposite of being Latino AUTOMATICALLY when it comes to experiences and that is a massive gap that’s hard to cross for many. And from what occurred with Antonio Zambrano-Montes in Washington ( ) or Anastasio Hernández Rojas tasered/ choked to death by multiple police officers ( and many others, it’s unfortunate.

Finally,  what follows in this resource concerns the Indigenous Tribes of the West Indies and North Hemisphere who are often called Hispanic (something that was brought up in discussion during the interviews from previous pages with the differing Latino individuals and groups interviewed for this project. These are maps from Aaron Carapella (Native American) and have been very helpful in my research. One of my graduate classes within American Studies (from Summer 2014) with Dr. Jaime Ortiz had us do differing presentations and I shared on African History in Puerto-Rico at one point – with some of the maps I saw coming in handy in showing the extensiveness in how Afro-Caribbean/Afro-Hispanic heritage for many in Puerto Rico or Cuba was interconnected with their experiences with Indigenous Tribal groups as a part of their heritage like Taino People and others.

 Other aspects of Afro-Latino heritage came up in discussion, as seen (for example) in studying on the experiences of those known as Afro-Mexicans – with good books on the issue such as “Black and Brown: African Americans and the Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920 (American History and Culture Series)” by Horne, Gerald OR “African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean” by Herbert S. Klein. 
There are many ways in which identity is visual and there are many intersections of culture which make your identity very complicated and nuanced when it comes to knowing what Christianity would look like in advocating for your group. Seeing your heritage as a Latino individual having Indigenous roots to the land  (as Justo L. González has noted when discussing the developments of many Hispanic communities and the Ibero-American heritage of Hispanics) is very significant since many issues Latinos deal with (i.e. immigration reform, documentation, border patrol laws harming the community, etc.) are tied to how they see themselves with regards to U.S. borders and U.S. intervention in Latin American countries.
The way that Christianity has expressed itself in Latin American countries is deeply tied to identity politics and seeing the diverse history can help in bridging that gap with understanding how to do cross-cultural activism from a religious perspective with Latino/Hispanic culture.



Thoughts are always welcome for others wishing to share more.


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